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第十三讲 轻松句、并列句和复合句

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生龙活虎。考试大纲供给

翻译本领中的“无影金针”

  语法知识点1

考察大纲要求考生能准确判别句子的项目、解析句子结构、结合语境和句意选用得当的接连词语、剖断主语和从句的不错语序、稳妥选拔主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

且看它们有多种要,看图别看本人:

  1.as…as.。。辅导的相比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像你相近学习努力。

二。命题导向

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  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学园统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考试首要回顾:句子的布局、连词的选拔、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和特别规的句式应用。

深粉末蓝圈出部分~~

  2.only指点的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

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  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
独有不辞劳怨、正直,一人在生活中能力成功。 

1.大概句、并列句和复合句

字不首要,看图~~

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  独有那位女孩子知道怎么解那道题。

① 句子类别三种分类法

哪个人明白as、v+ing、with,哪个人就得练神功。那多少个效果与利益词怎么用啊?且看下文,笔者只是个搬运工。有须求的心上人,动动你的手指头,复制、粘贴、打字与印刷。小编是你的好对象曾沐!

  3.wish指导的设想语气:wish
后边的从句,现代表与实际相反的景况,或意味着以后不太大概达成的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词格局为: 

依照句子的用途,俄语的语句可分:陈诉句(分明、否定)、疑问句(平常、特殊、选用、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等二种。

作品结尾处有彩蛋~~不谢!

  ⑴代表对现在事态的杜撰:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be
的千古式用were.   

鲁人持竿句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

一、as的用法

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
作者梦想知晓这么些难题的答案。(缺憾不精晓。) 

总结句独有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分集团(;)把五个或四个以上的大约句连在一同构成。复合句:含有贰个或二个上述从句的语句。复合句包蕴:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

1.as用作连词教导时刻状语从句

  ⑵代表对过去气象的设想:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 比量齐观句的归类

as与when,while都以教导时间状语从句的依靠连词,含义都以“当……的时候”。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
小编后悔不应该浪费这么多时光。( 实际莺时经浪费掉了。) 

一视同仁句指把三个相符主要的句子连接在一块,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

但它们有区别

  ⑶表示对现在的莫明其妙意愿:谓语动词方式为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在此种情状下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法长期以来,因为主句的主语所梦想的从句动作能或不能够达成,决议于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除了这么些之外)
。 

意味着接收事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

用when时,从句的动作能够与主句的动作同时爆发,也足以先于主句的动作发生;

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

用while时,从句的动作为生机勃勃进程,主句动作与从句动作同期开展或在从句动作进度中爆发;

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,能够象征央浼,平时意味着说话人的优伤或可惜。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

用as时,主句和从句的动作同期产生,具备继续的意义。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  小编期望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

例如:

  4.it方式宾语:和it 作情势主语相通,  我们常用it 来作情势宾语,
把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情形愈加出以往带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他注明她不会屈服。 

状语从句平日修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不肩负句子成分。依据状语从句所表达的两样含义和功力,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、指标、结果、妥洽、相比、情势等状语从句。

他达到工地时,天正在下雪。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

(2)He was watching TV while his mother was cooking.

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。我们越惊愕困难,困难就能变得越强大。

岁月状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.黄金时代……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第贰回,last
time最终二回,every/each time每一趟,the next time下一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
黄金时代……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

他母亲做饭时他在看电视。

  语法知识点2

案由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

(3) You will grow wiser as you grow older.

  1. 宾语从句:日常难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

您会随着年纪的巩固而愈发聪明。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗可是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

2.as用作连词辅导由来状语从句

  2. 缘由状语从句:since指导的

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(假诺;只要),in case (万意气风发);
on condition that(假诺), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

as,because,since都足以代表因果关系,连接原因状语从句,含义是“因为,由于”。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

但它们有区别

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

相比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
辅导。

because表示的小说最强;

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方法状语从句:as(正如;依据),as if/as though (好像)指导。

as日常位于句首,语气较弱,较口语化;

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

since日常用在封面语中,表示多为对方已知的、或稍加分析便可获悉的缘由,有时可译作”既然”。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

例如:

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中何足为奇采纳汇报语序。不过,在上边包车型大巴二种状态下,状语从句多选择倒装语序:

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

①当连词as,
though连接退让状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词平时置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比如:

他迟早会中标,因为她很认真。

  6.状语从句轻巧(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语黄金时代致,状从轻巧选用分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

(2) Since you are so sure of ithe”ll believe you.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

既然如此你对此如此有把握,他会相信您的。  

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(3) As rain has fallen, the air is cooler.

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的多个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句选拔局地倒装语序。比如:

因为下过雨,空气比较舒心。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“前边一个情状适用于前者”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

3.as作连词引导低头状语从句

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

as与although (或though),however (或no matter
how)等都足以指引妥协状语从句,含义是“虽然,尽管”。

  3.定语从句 who指导的节制性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第3个分句采取部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用叙述语序。比如:

但它们有区别

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教大家克罗地亚语的那么些女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

although语气稍正式些,可放在句首,也可放在句中,主句中不能够再用but,但能够用yet;

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同教导迁就状语从句,句子接受陈说语序。比如:

as所代表的弦外有音较强,教导的折衷状语从句用倒装语序;

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

however指引迁就状语从句时,它的前边可跟形容词或副词,也要用倒装语序。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the
+相比级the+相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子依旧选用陈说语序。比如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

例如:

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since
的不相同之处在于,now that
引出的总得是二个新现身的真实情况或情状,若是还是依旧,和过去对照并从未变化,则毫不
now that 指引。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

(1) Although he is quite old, he still jogs every day.

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然大家把全体资料都盘算好了,大家应有立时初步那项新的干活。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态日常按照以下的规律:

她虽说年龄相当的大,仍旧每一天慢跑。

  7. 缘故状从:for的用法。由because
指点的从句假设身处句末,且前边有逗号,则能够用并列连词 for
来代替。但假如不是认证直接原因,而是多样状态再说估量,就只好用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他前些天没来,因为他患有了。

①意味“同不常间”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的年华状语从句,主句和从句时态基本大器晚成致。比方:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

(2) Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.

  8. 缘由状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新嘉坡 passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。


表示“以往”意义的标准、时间和迁就状语从句中多用日常以往时,而主句用平日现在时,被誉为“主将从现”。举例:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

这一次意外尽管显得令人难以置信,却绝非人受到损伤。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


since指引的日子状语从句多用日常过去时,而含有since从句的主句经常用前些天达成时。比如:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

as引导的折衷状语从句必须以局地倒装的格局现身,被倒装的生机勃勃部分能够是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于那样的布局中,但although不可能这么用。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 合营化的长处在于能有利于相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第三个分句中过去产生时,第二个分句用日常过去时。举个例子:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

例如:

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though
指导的状语从句中,假若表示生机勃勃种与实际相反夸张,从句多用日常过去时或过去到位时。比如:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简约

(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)

当从句的主语与主句的主语相近不经常候,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句肖似的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动组织的状语从句,可概括与主句相通的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。比如:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

尽管你批驳,笔者也要去。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works
hard, he makes little progress.)

(6)状语从句被用来重申组织中

就算他念书很拼命,但大概没获得哪些发展。   Child as/though he was, he
knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew
what was the right thing to do.)

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申组织时,意气风发律用It is/was
…that…,不能够用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当重申Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再利用倒装语序。举例:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

固然她是二个亲骨血,但他领会该做什么样。

  1. 名词性从句

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.

(1)名词性从句分类:

不怕你读得快,你也无法那样快读完那本书。

固守在句中的成效,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句二种。

(3) However hard he may try, he will not attain his goal.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

无论是她怎么着努力也达不到对象。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担当成分,不时可被略去;表示“是还是不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。若是从句贫乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用三番五次代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;借使从句缺乏状语,用连续副词when, where, how, why。

4.as作论及代词的用法

出于一而再连续代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,由此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而连续几天词whether
和if(是或不是),在从句中不担负句子成分,只起接连效能。

波及代词as因势利导定语从句时,不仅可以够单独行使,也足以与其余词连用,其用法要比that和which更为复杂。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

(1)as辅导定语从句与其他词连用

① 在偏下二种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可归纳。

①用于the same…as结构中

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。多如牛毛的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊悸的)等。

This is the same book as I read last week.

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。平淡无奇的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(提出,提议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

那本书和自个儿下七日读的那本是如出风姿浪漫辙。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。冷眼旁观的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②用于such…as结构中

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(提出),advise(建议),recommend(提议,推荐),
request(央求,须要),
demand(要求),require(必要,要求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

I don”t like such books as he recommends.

③ 在包罗advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

自己不赏识他引入的那一个书。

④在局地意味着傻眼、意志等心境色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。举例:

③用于”so +adj. + a/an + n. (单数) + as “结构中

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

小编早已未有过去那么强健了。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

(2)as单独指导定语从句
as单独指导定语从句时,先行词能够是二个词,也能够是贰个句子或短语。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

例如:

  1. 定语从句

(1) She is late, as is often the case.

(1)定语从句的归类

她迟到了,那是有时的事。

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非约束性定语从句二种。约束性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量成效,而非限定性定语从句对先行词起互补和演讲表达效益。常常节制性定语从句与先行词之间一向不逗号,而非限定性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔离。

(先行词是成套主句)

(2)定语从句的关联代词和涉及副词

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

定语从句平时由关系代词和涉嫌副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和关系副词必须放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连续几天来先行词和从句的职能,同期在从句中又担任句子成分。

对真相不问不闻–你们超多少人都以那样的愚钝。

(3)关系代词和涉嫌副词的用法:

(先行词是不定式短语)

①超过行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②超过行词为物或任何句蛇时用which,可作主语或宾语;③优先词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

5.as作介词的用法 as作介词,意思是”作为”,”以……身份”

(4)限定性定语从句与非约束性定语从句的界别

例如:

①限定性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义残缺,以至不合逻辑。比方:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就残缺)

He came to China as a tourist five years ago.


非节制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不留心,去掉定从句,意思如故安然无恙。方式上用逗号隔离,不能够that用引导。举例:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

她三年前以旅客的地点来过中华夏儿女民共和国。

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个难题

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally
“相同地”,”同样地”。

①用that而不用 which的意况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高端修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举个例子:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

例如:

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

他俩不曾相符多的飞机。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

二、动词ing格局的用法

② 用which而不用
that的意况:教导非节制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意味;用于介词 的后面+
关系代词。譬如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

一)Ving形式作定语

③ 关系代词as的用法

分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as教导定语从句。举例:

单个分词作者定语时,放在被修饰的名词早先。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

例如:

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

The man standing by the window is our teacher. Many frightened people
rushed out of the burning building.  

b.
as可代表主句的剧情,教导的非约束性定语从句既可放在主句在此以前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。比如: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

Ving作定语首要代表动作和用途。

c. as 教导非约束性定语从句时与which的分化

  1. 表示动作(主动的、进行的动作)。

当主句和从句语义生机勃勃致时,用as辅导;反之,用which来指导迷津非限定性定语从句;当非限定订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指导。举个例子:

a waiting car = the car that is waiting

He made a long speech, as we expected。

a sleeping child 入梦的子女

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

The girl standing there is my sister.

④提到代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数依旧用复数应由先行词决定。举个例子:

站在此儿的女孩是自家的姊妹。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

[注意]现今分词作者定语时,它意味着的动作是正在扩充或与谓语动词所代表的动作大致同时产生,假设八个动作有先有后,日常不可能用今后分词作者定语,而要用定语从句。

⑤ 指导定语从句的涉嫌副词偶然能够用“介词 + which”来代表。举个例子:

举例: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
先生争辩了打破窗户的上学的儿童。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

  1. 表示用途:

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只可以用which和whom,且不能够轻松;倘使介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可回顾。例如:

the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

a working method 专门的学业办法

上一页12345678910下一页

He has a reading room. 他有二个书屋。

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【比较】

过去分词作者定语:及物动词的过去分词表示被动,比不上物动词的过去分词表示动作产生。
 

例如:

That is the book written by Lu Xun. 那是周樟寿写的书。

He is a returned student. 他是一个回国的留学子。

不定式作定语: 用不定式作定语,其平时所修饰的名词、代词有: meeting,
reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise,
ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody,
thing…

例如: We have no time to lose.

咱俩从偶然间(能够浪费)了。

That’s the plan to build the factory.

那就是建这座工厂的陈设。

(二)Ving形式作宾语补足语

  1. 在keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see,
    leave…等动词后常用Ving格局作宾语补足语。 举个例子:

1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night.

至极老总让工友忘寝废食地劳作。

2) We found the old lady lying in bed.

作者们开采那老太太躺在床的上面。

  1. 在感官动词:

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find…等及运用动词:have,
make, leave, keep,
get…等后不仅能够用不定式也得以用Ving方式作宾语补足语。不定式(不带
to)表示经过或动作一鼓作气,Ving方式强调举行或及时景色。

例如:

I saw the lady crossing the street.

本身看到那位女士在过马路。

We heard her sing two songs.

作者们听他唱了两首歌。

(三)Ving格局作主语
Ving方式具备动词和名词的习性,在句中起名词效率,可作主语。   Seeing is
believing.百闻比不上一见。

It is no use arguing with him.

和他争辨从未用。

Ving情势作主语常用于下列句型:

【句型1】It is + 名词(或形容词) + 动名词 It is + no use /no  good/ a
waste of time so nice+ crying there.doing that.

例如:

1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在这里地等是浪费时间。

2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很欢快和您讲讲。

【句型2】 There is no + 动名词    

举个例子: There is no stopping of him. 相当小概阻挡他。

There was no telling of the difference. 不可能加以差别。

【注意】

① Ving格局和不定式都足以作主主语,Ving情势作主语表示日常或抽象的
多次性行为,不定式作主语往往代表具体的或叁回性的动作。

例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一切实可行动作)

但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless
等后必得用Ving情势。

② Ving情势作主语,谓语动词用单数。

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

忘掉过去就意味着戴绿帽子。

(四)Ving格局作表语
Ving方式具备形容词和名词的品质,在句中可作表语。作表语用的Ving情势有三种:

大器晚成种用作名词,黄金时代种用作形容词。

用作名词时,表明主语的从头到尾的经过,就此提问时,用what ;

用作形容词时,表达主语的脾气,用how实行咨询。

例如:

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It
is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

(五)Ving方式作宾语
Ving方式具备动词和名词的品质,在句中起名词成效,可作宾语。

He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.
他很喜欢足球,笔者爱好游泳。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy,
escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include,
keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest,
can’t help, can’t stand等动词后方可用Ving情势作宾语,但无法用不定式。

②forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop,
try等动词可带Ving方式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有差距。

试比较:

I remember doing the exercise.

自己回忆做过练习。

I must remember to do it.

自家不得不记着做这件事。

I tried not to go there.

自己灵机一动不去那边。

I tried doing it again.

自个儿试着又干了贰次。

Stop speaking.  

毫无说话。

He stopped to talk.

她停下来讲话。

I mean to come early today.

自己企图今日来早些。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了那趟火车意味着再等二个钟头。

③在allow, advise, forbid, permit
等动词后直接跟动词作者宾语时,要用Ving情势,要是前面出名词或代词作者宾语,然后在跟动词作者宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

例如:

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

④动词need, require,
want作“须求”解,其后跟动词作者它的宾语时,必得用Ving方式,或不定式的被动式,此时,Ving情势的积极格局表示被动意义。

例如:

The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to,
thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty
/ trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel
 like, get down to等后的动词也非得用Ving方式。

例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

⑥在love, hate,
prefer等动词后用Ving格局或不定式无大的分歧。但讲话人有所指的时候,平日用不定式。

⑦start, begin, continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

⑧在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

【知识张开】 Ving情势的时态和语态

  1. Ving格局的时态
    Ving情势的时态分日常式和达成式三种,倘若Ving方式的动作未有明了地意味着出时间是与谓语动词同有时间产生或在谓语动词以前发生,用Ving方式的日常式。

例如:

His coming will be of great  help to us.

要是Ving形式的动作发生在谓语动词所代表的动作在此以前,平时用Ving格局的姣好时态。

例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

  1. Ving格局的语态
    主语是其意气风发Ving情势所代表的动作的对象时,Ving格局用被动语态。

被动语态由“being + 过去分词”或“having been +
过去分词”构成,后大器晚成种日常防止接纳。

例如:

He likes being helped.

He was afraid of being left at home.

在to be worth doing 句型中,Ving情势doing表示的是被动意义。

例 如:

The book is worth reading.

动词的-ing方式是阿拉伯语中国和南美洲谓语动词的意气风发种,它在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及补足语。

是因为这种样式是由动词变化而来的,由此它具备动词的某个特征,就能够带本人的宾语和状语,进而结成动词
-ing短语。它有时态和语态的变通,也是有否定情势及其复合结构方式。    

现以动词do为例,其变化格局如下:

复合结构格局在句中最首要作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing方式。

风姿罗曼蒂克、
动词-ing情势作主语(平时指叁个虚无动作)时,它可一向置于主语地点,也能够用it作情势主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing格局放在句子的后部。

例如:

  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.

  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for
    help in case of an emergency.

  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 4. His coming made us very happy.
    (复合结构作主语)

二、 动词-ing方式作宾语。

例如:

  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks,
    when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.

  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?

  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

[注意]

  1. 下列动词前面经常要用动词-ing情势作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind,
    suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider,
    admit, miss(遗失), imagine, avoid(幸免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot
    help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)前边常用动词  
     -ing的积极性格局表示被动意义。

例如:

The flowers want watering.

三、 动词-ing情势作表语(常指主语的内容、状态或品质等)。

例如:

My interests are reading  novels, playing football and singing songs.  
 

The film was so moving that we saw it twice.

四、 动词-ing形式作定语

单个的动词-ing格局作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前边;动词-ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词前边。

例如:

  1. English is the working language of most international. organizations,
    international trade and tourism.

  2. The building being built now will be our library.

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

动词-ing形式作状语时,可以代表时间、原因、伴随处境、条件、结果等。

例如:

  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)

  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)

  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden.
    (伴随情况)

  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all
    the competing countries.

(结果) 注意:

  1. 动词-ing方式(短语)作状语时的多少个脾性。


年华性。即使动词-ing情势所表表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同一时间产生,则用平日式;假使动词-ing方式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作在此以前则应用完了式。


语态性。应驰念动词-ing方式与句子主语之间的涉及是主谓关系依旧动宾关系,据此来明确语态。

③ 人称的意气风发致性。动词-ing格局的逻辑主语应和语句的主语豆蔻梢头致。

  1. 动词-ing情势前能够加when, while,
    though等附属连词,那能够说是状语从句的省略。

例如:

When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the
glasses should not be touched. While visiting the city, they received a
warm welcome.

六、 动词-ing形式作补足语

例如:

  1. He found the wall being painted.

  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will
    become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.    

平凡,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing格局作宾语补足语往往意味着其动作在持续或进行中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的普及的动词有:

have, get, send, leave等选用动词;

see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look
at等感官动词。

当这一个动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing格局就相应形成了主语补足语。

三、with的用法

with结构是不菲阿尔巴尼亚语复合结构中最常用的意气风发种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结会谈单独主格结构均能起很要紧的成效。

大器晚成、 with结构的重新组合

它是由介词with或without+复合结构构成,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第后生可畏某些宾语由名词或代词当做,第一局地补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词当作,分词能够是将来分词,也得以是过去分词。

With结构组成艺术如下

  1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词+动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词+分词。

上边分别比方:

1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.

(with+名词+形容词,作陪伴状语)

2、 With the meal over , we all went home.

(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。

(with+名词+介词短语,作陪伴状语。)

The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to
say he was kind to me.

(with+名词+不定式,作陪伴状语)

He could not finish it without me to help him.

(without+代词 +不定式,作规范状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

(with+名词+现在分词 ,作陪伴状语)

6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something
to eat.

(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语) 二、with结构的用法
在句子中with结构许多当做状语,表示作为情势,伴随情形、时间、原因或标准(详见上述例句)。

With结构在句中也能够作定语

例如:

1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few
patches of land sticking out above the water.

3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

三、 with结构的性状

1.
with结构由介词with或without+复合结构重新组合。复合结构中首先有的与第三盘部语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,相当于说,能够用第风度翩翩某些作主语,第二有的作谓语,构成三个句子。

例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good
care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was
gone.)

  1. 在with结构中,第风度翩翩部分为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。

例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、 几点表达:

  1. with结构在句子中之处:

with
结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时相通位于句子前边,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方法和陪伴情状时日常位于句子后边,不用逗号分开。

若with结构作定语,则位于所修饰的名词之后,常常不要逗号隔开分离。

  1. with结构作状语时,不定式、今后分词 、和过去分词的区分:

在with结构中,不定式、以后分词作者宾补,表示积极,可是不定式表示就要产生的动作,而现行反革命分词表示正在发生或爆发了的动作;过去分词表示被动或形成。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

(男童已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.

(男儿童前些天将教导)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door
shut.(寝室被关着)

  1. with结构与通常的with短语的区别

with结构有所上述效用和个性,而”介词with+名词或代词(组)”组成的相符的with短语在句子中可以作定语和状语。

作状语时,它能代表动作的艺术、原因,但不能够表示时间、伴随和规格。在相近的with短语中,with前边所跟的不是复合结构,也一贯未曾逻辑上的主谓关系。

  1. with结构与独立主格结构的涉嫌:
    with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、全数格代词或任何词类所修饰,结构较松懈;

而独自己作主格结构未有with或without带领,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。在句句法功效上,with结构得以作定语,独立主格结构则不能够;独立主格结构平时在句中作状语,但也足以作主语,而with结构则无法。

单独主格在口语中不经常用,往往由二个从句替代,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

例如: There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.

(“with+复合宾语”结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

(名词+以往分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)

The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand
raised.

(独立主格结构,表示伴随处境或行为情势,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

(名词+介词短语构成的独门主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情状)。

剧情有一些多,下篇文章,笔者将用大家的法门解读那三个效用词,大家的靶子是最简易、最佳玩、最精准的消除考试的场馆。

此外,想要了然别的在备考进程中,其余内容的对象,请关心作者的其余小说:

CATTI三级笔译备考日记(风姿洒脱):真正早前看书前,笔者做了什么?

CATTI俄文三级笔译备考日记(二):汉语翻译英十大翻译本事?笔者脑子笨,就不能够说得轻便点,详细点?

CATTI土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)语三级笔译备考日记(三):请叫小编管家,叫自个儿项目老总也可以

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